This volume describes several highly diverse subjects: Chapter 1 explores marine biodiscovery of the North-eastern Atlantic off the coast of Ireland as a model for best practice in research. The second chapter investigates Brazilian Chemical Ecology and examples of insect-plant communication studies that are mediated by natural products demonstrate the beautiful interconnectedness of species in a biome. Our third chapter comprises the advances in the science of the sesquiterpene quinone, perezone, which in 1852 was the first natural product isolated in crystalline form in the New World. The last two chapters are from a Vietnamese group and the first of these follows the phytochemistry, pharmacology, and ethnomedical uses of the genus Xanthium, which produces interesting sulfur and nitrogen containing natural products. Finally, the genus Desmos is discussed, where an overview of its constituent natural products and their in vitro pharmacological potential is described.