1 Nabil R. Adam and Ali Dogramaci Measuring, analyzing, and improving productivity in a given organization is a complex process that involves the contributions of economists, industrial engineers, operations researchers, management scientists, and lawyers. The objective of this book is to provide the reader with a sample of original papers that relate to these productivity topics at the organizational level. In the book, the word organization refers to business firms and municipal organizations. The hook is divided into three parts: perspectives on productivity mea- surement, a range of studies at the micro level, and some productivity issues in public organizations. Part I, which consists of three chapters, deals with productivity measurement. The first two chapters of this part cover a broad framework of measurement concepts and techniques; the last chapter, on the other hand, provides the reader with an example of productivity measurement for a specific industry (in this case, food retail- ing). Thus, a spectrum of productivity measurement issues is covered in this part of the book.