`The book is an excellent example of the application of modern econometric techniques to Chinese data, some of which was especially collected for the research. The results throw new light on aspects of industrial sector reform in China. The book deserves wide attention from those interested in the economic reforms in China, especially those interested in the implications of the reforms for industrial sector efficiency and productivity growth.’ – Christopher Findlay, University of Adelaide As the rural township, village and private enterprises are becoming more and more significant in the Chinese economy, this book focuses on the comparison of the rural (non-state) and state firms in terms of performance. The analysis is based on the empirical results from estimating various production functions applied to cross-section and panel data. Both aggregate and firm-specific efficiencies are examined in the case studies, exploring potential sources of efficiency differentials such as ownership, scale, factor intensity, location and economic reforms. Special attention is also paid to the regional comparison of industrial development and performance. The implications of the findings in the book for economic and reform policy are thus highlighted.