Particle production is an important topic in nuclear and particle physics. At high energies, particle production is considered to proceed via parton branching and subsequent fragmentation into hadrons. The study of the dynamics of this process and the study of the structure of hadrons in the context of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) belong to the challenges of the standard model of elementary particle physics, requiring new, nonperturba- tive approaches in field theory. Within a nucleus, many-body dynamics is important and particle production may be used to determine many features of a non-equilibrium quantum system at low or high temperatures. At this Advanced Study Institute the different aspects of particle pro- duction were expanded upon in a series of lectures given by experts in their fields, covering topics ranging from near-threshold meson production in proton-proton collisions to correlations in multi-GeV jet fragmentation in high-energy scattering processes and signals of a quark-gluon plasma formed in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Strong emphasis was placed not only on state of the art research, but also on the necessary physics back- ground. The lectures were supplemented by problem sets and discussion sessions. There was also time for students to present short contributions on their research.