The low level of organic cotton production in Benin is a situation that is of concern to the authorities at various levels. The aim of this research is to analyse the socio-economic determinants of the low level of organic cotton production in the commune of Banikoara, and to analyse the perceived impact on the health of producers and the environment in this commune. The methodological approach adopted is mixed, both qualitative and quantitative. Documentary research, interviews and observation are the techniques used to collect the data, with tools such as interview guides, questionnaires, reading grids and observation grids. The strategic analysis model of Crozier and Friedberg (1977), based on the hypothetico-inductive approach, was used and the rank indices were calculated. Data was collected from 100 cotton growers in 05 villages in the commune of Banikoara and from resource persons involved in the sector. The results of this research show that many constraints limit organic cotton production in the commune of Banikoara.