The development of biotechnology over the last 20 years, and particularly the use of recombinant DNA techniques, has rapidly expanded the opportu- ties for human benefits from living resources. Efforts to reduce pollution, p- vent environmental damage, combat microbial infection, improve food production, and so on can each involve fermentation or the environmental – lease of microorganisms. Many products of fermentation technology, such as alcoholic beverages, bread, antibiotics, amino acids, vitamins, enzymes, and others, have been influenced by the progress of recombinant DNA techniques. The development of new products or the more efficient manufacturing of those already being produced often involve the use of microorganisms as cell fac- ries for many productions and biotransformations. Microbial Processes and Products is intended to provide practical expe- mental laboratory procedures for a wide range of processes and products me- ated by microorganisms. Although not an exhaustive treatise, it provides a detailed “step-by-step” description of the most recent developments in such applied biotechnological processes. The detailed protocols we provide are cross-referenced in the Notes section, contain critical details, lists of problems and their troubleshooting, as well as safety recommendations that may not n- mally appear in journal articles and can be particularly useful for those un- miliar with specific techniques.