This book clarifies the quantitative relationship between time, money, and labor productivity from the perspective of Marxian labor theory of value. The book is divided into four main parts. Part I introduces the relationship between time and money in the context of Marxian value theory. Part II explores the theory of labor exploitation. Part III turns to analysis of the rate of profit, which is a primary characteristic of classical and Marxian economics. Part IV is devoted to suggesting a new research direction in light of the main conceptual innovation of the book.