This book provides a comprehensive overview of landraces. It is organized into two sections on animal landraces and plant landraces. Section 1 includes two chapters that discuss the use of ruminants in tropical regions. Section 2 includes four chapters that examine the benefits of indigenous plants and discuss strategies for improving wheat production. The information provided can be applied to various regions to solve local problems and needs, such as low-income production systems, and to preserve animal and plant resources.