Fungi playa major role in the sustainability of the biosphere, and mycorrhizal fungi are essential for the growth of many of our woods and forests. The applications of fungi in agriculture, industry and biotechnology remain of paramount importance, as does their use as a source of drugs and to help clean up our environment. This volume contains key papers from the conference ‘From Ethnomycology to Fungal Biotechnology: Exploiting Fungi from Natural Resources for Novel Products’. This was the first international scientific conference covering the transfer of traditional remedies and processes in ethnomycology to modern fungal biotechnology. The conference was held at Simla, Himachal Pradesh, India from 15 to 16 December 1997. The key subject areas addressed in the conference were the issues of exploring and exploiting fungal diversity for novel leads to new antibiotics, enzymes, medicines and a range of other leads for wood preservation, biological control, agricultural biotechnology and the uses of fungi in the food industry. The conference programme included key-note presentations followed by poster sessions and general discussion. The book is broadly based, covering five main areas: Ethnomycology, Fungal Biotechnology, Biological Control, Mycorrhizal Fungi and Fungal Pests. There is no doubt that in the past fungi have played a key role in ethnomycological remedies and that in the future they will continue to attract the interest of a wide range of disciplines ranging from environmental conservation, agriculture and the food industry to wood preservation and aerobiological studies.