The demand for natural flavorings and aroma compounds in the food and pharmaceutical industries has led to increased interest in metabolic engineering of plants to produce these compounds at high yields. Vanillin, a widely used flavoring agent, is mostly derived from vanilla beans, which are expensive and require significant resources for cultivation. As an alternative, the phenylpropanoid pathway in plants such as Ocimum species (O. gratissimum and O. sanctum) can be engineered for vanillin production. Metabolic engineering involves manipulating the genetic and biochemical pathways within an organism to produce a desired compound. The phenylpropanoid pathway is responsible for the biosynthesis of several secondary metabolites, including vanillin. By introducing genes encoding for enzymes involved in the pathway, the flux towards vanillin production can be increased. This can be achieved through various techniques such as gene editing using CRISPR/Cas9, RNA interference, and synthetic biology. Plant tissue culture and transformation techniques are also essential in the engineering of the phenylpropanoid pathway. Heterologous expression of the genes involved in the pathway, such as in microbial hosts like E. coli and yeast, can also be used to increase yields of vanillin. Fermentation technology and bioreactors can be utilized to scale-up production of vanillin. Downstream processing and purification are crucial steps in obtaining high-quality vanillin for use in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Quality control measures can ensure that the product meets the required standards. Green chemistry and sustainable production practices are important considerations in the engineering of the phenylpropanoid pathway for vanillin production. Biotechnology patents protect the intellectual property of the technology developed for the production of vanillin. Overall, metabolic engineering of the phenylpropanoid pathway in Ocimum species for vanillin production has the potential to provide a sustainable and cost-effective alternative to traditional methods of vanillin production. This approach could lead to the production of high-quality vanillin at a large scale, benefiting the food and pharmaceutical industries, and potentially reducing the reliance on vanilla bean cultivation.