Bioactive compounds are secondary metabolites that provide nutritional benefit as well as have therapeutic potential. They can be found in many foods including vegetables, whole grains, fruits and a variety of plants. Bioactive compounds are typically made up of amino acid residues and can have a variety of physical effects including antithrombotic, antioxidant and antihypertensive activities. They vary widely in terms of structures and functions, and could be used as chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agents in cancer treatment. Various types of bioactive compounds include polyphenolic compounds, carotenoids, sulfur-containing compounds and terpenoids. Additionally, many pathways have been shown to mediate the influence of bioactive compounds on cancer and achieving positive outcomes in the cancer patients, through endoplasmic reticulum stress, regulation of oxidative stress and epigenetic changes. This book provides significant information to help develop a good understanding of cancer management using bioactive natural products. A number of latest researches have been included to keep the readers up-to-date.