This book comprehensively discusses the applications of molecular genetics, functional and structural genomics, and proteomics vis-a-vis bioinformatics, artificial intelligence, and robotics in livestock healthfulness and productivity. It reviews the biotechnological approaches in veterinary sciences for increasing productivity and resistance to disease. The book emphasizes the approaches based on artificial intelligence to analyze the data collected on animals, pathogens, and their environment. It underscores artificial intelligence applications in disease diagnosis, epidemiological studies, and detecting biological phenomena, including heat-detection, pregnancy, docility, and infections. Further, the book examines the genomics and proteomics approaches for understanding the gut microbiota and the role of pathogen-host interactions in animal health and disease. Lastly, it explores both pathogenic and non-pathogenic microbial transfer between humans, animals, and the environment across one health spectrum.