This is the first systematic study of best approximation theory in inner product spaces and, in particular, in Hilbert space. Geometric considerations play a prominent role in developing and understanding the theory. The only prerequisites for reading the book is some knowledge of advanced calculus and linear algebra. Throughout the book, examples and applications have been interspersed with the theory. Each chapter concludes with numerous exercises and a section in which the author puts the results of that chapter into a historical perspective.