Agricultural food production refers to the activity of producing food. Water and its efficient management is an integral part of agricultural food production, since it enables crop diversification and production intensification. The production of food using processes and systems that are non-polluting and aid in conserving non-renewable energy is known as sustainable food production. It involves ensuring the sustained availability of resources including water and energy. Various challenges that make it difficult to achieve sustainable food production include rising population and demand for food, climate change, decreasing per capita land, and limited water resources. Implementing sustainable water management strategies in agriculture such as adopting best irrigation practices, improving agricultural practices, direct seeding of water intensive crops, landform management, and rainwater harvesting are important for sustainable food production. This book outlines the role of water availability and management in agricultural food production in detail. It includes contributions of experts, which will provide innovative insights into this area of agriculture. The book will serve as a valuable source of reference for graduate and postgraduate students.